Kumana National Park

Kumana National Park

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A Breathtaking Wildlife Sanctuary

Kumana National Park, also known as Yala East National Park, is a hidden gem nestled in the southeastern corner of Sri Lanka. Spanning over 35,664 hectares, this mesmerizing sanctuary is renowned for its diverse ecosystems, rich biodiversity, and unique birdlife. In this extensive exploration of Kumana National Park, we’ll delve into its history, geographical features, flora and fauna, conservation efforts, visitor experiences, and the importance of preserving this natural wonder.

Historical Background:

Kumana National Park has a storied past, dating back to ancient times. Historically, it was part of the hunting grounds of the Kandyan Kings, and it even served as a royal reserve. Later, during British colonial rule, it was used for hunting game, including elephants and leopards.

In 1938, Kumana was declared a sanctuary to protect its avian inhabitants. Subsequently, in 2006, it gained the status of a national park. This protected status reflects its significance as a crucial habitat for many species, particularly birds.

Geographical Features:

Situated in the Ampara District of the Eastern Province, Kumana National Park boasts a stunning mix of wetland, grassland, forest, and coastal ecosystems. The park’s centerpiece is the Kumana Villu, a large mangrove swamp that plays a pivotal role in its ecology. This wetland is vital for the park’s resident and migratory birds, especially during the nesting season.

The park is bordered by the Indian Ocean on one side, providing a picturesque backdrop of golden beaches and azure waters. It’s essential to note that Kumana’s proximity to the Yala National Park allows wildlife to move freely between these protected areas, contributing to the overall conservation of the region’s fauna.

Flora and Fauna:

Kumana National Park is renowned for its remarkable biodiversity. Its rich plant life includes a variety of mangrove species, grasses, and shrubs. The park’s ecosystems support an array of wildlife, including several threatened and endemic species.

The avian diversity in Kumana is exceptional. The park is home to over 200 bird species, making it a birdwatcher’s paradise. Notable inhabitants include the iconic Painted Stork, Sri Lankan Junglefowl, Malabar Pied Hornbill, and the Lesser Adjutant. However, the park is perhaps most famous for hosting a significant population of migratory birds, including the Greater Flamingo and the Eurasian Spoonbill, which arrive during the northern winter.

Mammals like elephants, leopards, and water buffalo also call Kumana home. The wetlands provide essential habitat for various reptiles and amphibians, including the Saltwater Crocodile and the Indian Python.

Conservation Efforts:

Kumana National Park’s conservation efforts have been focused on preserving its unique biodiversity and protecting the delicate balance of its ecosystems. The Department of Wildlife Conservation in Sri Lanka has been working tirelessly to safeguard this precious natural heritage.

One significant challenge is human-wildlife conflict, particularly with elephants. Efforts have been made to mitigate these conflicts through the establishment of electric fences and community education programs. Furthermore, strict anti-poaching measures are in place to protect the park’s wildlife from illegal hunting and trapping.

Visitor Experiences:

Kumana National Park offers a range of experiences for nature enthusiasts and adventure seekers. The park’s pristine beaches invite visitors to relax and soak in the tranquil coastal scenery. Jeep safaris are a popular way to explore the park and observe its wildlife. Knowledgeable guides are essential for understanding the park’s complex ecosystems and tracking down its elusive inhabitants.

Birdwatchers will find Kumana to be a paradise for ornithology. The best time for birdwatching is during the migratory season from April to July when the park teems with flocks of colorful and exotic birds.

Importance of Preservation:

The preservation of Kumana National Park is essential for several reasons. Firstly, it safeguards the biodiversity of the region, protecting numerous species of flora and fauna. Secondly, it contributes to the conservation of migratory birds that travel vast distances to reach Kumana, making it a critical stopover point in their journey.

Additionally, Kumana National Park is vital for the overall ecological health of Sri Lanka’s eastern region. The mangrove ecosystems help mitigate the impacts of coastal erosion and serve as nurseries for many marine species, supporting local fisheries.

Finally, Kumana holds cultural and recreational value, attracting tourists from around the world and providing economic opportunities for the surrounding communities.


Kumana National Park stands as a testament to the natural wonders of Sri Lanka’s eastern coast. Its diverse ecosystems, stunning landscapes, and remarkable wildlife make it a must-visit destination for nature enthusiasts and a vital area for conservation efforts.

Preserving Kumana is not just about protecting a national treasure; it’s about safeguarding the delicate balance of life in this unique corner of the world. Efforts to conserve and protect this extraordinary park will ensure that future generations can continue to marvel at its beauty and experience its abundant biodiversity. Kumana National Park is not just a place; it’s a living, breathing testament to the importance of conservation in our ever-changing world.


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